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parts of a book san marcos hs

Parts of a Book
Cover- To put something over or upon, as to protected conceal or enclose.
Spine-The back part of the book and it faces outward when you shelf the book right.
Title Page- The page at the beginning of the book, usually containing the title of the book and the names of the author and publisher.
Copyright Page- Where the copyright date is found.
Dedication Page- its the place where the author dedicates the book to someone.
Table of Contents-A list of the books contents, arranged by chapter, section, subsection, Etc…
Forward- An introduction by someone other than the author, and it is usually a famous person..
Text (or Body)-The actual words of the book
Glossary-A list of hard words with thier meanings often printed in the back of the book.
Bibliography- A list of books,artiacls ect. used or referd by the author at the end of the book.
Index-A list of names and subjects in alphabetical order at the end of the book.its the page

Quantitative Observation
• In the scientific method, after a scientist comes up with a theory based on an observation of something in nature, she starts an experiment. Once the experiment is underway, it must be observed. The scientist records the observations of the experiment and collects data. One form of data collection during the method is quantitative. This form of observation during an experiment employs mathematical models and relies on the scientist to collect information based on numbers, such as how many apples fell from a tree or balcony. Quantitative observation is common in physics, biology and the natural sciences.

Qualitative Observation
• When a scientist performs an experiment that requires observations concerning the quality of what has happened in an experiment, it is considered a qualitative observation or data. Examples include the shapes of the apples that fell from a balcony or tree or what happened to them when they fell. Qualitative observations can be easily dismissed in experiments that require hard mathematical data, but they are made nonetheless. Qualitative observations can be very important in experiments that require interpretation.





Sa mga batayang anyo ng pagpapahayag, ang pagsasalaysay ang pinakagamitin o pinakamadalas gamitin sa pang-araw-araw na pakikipagtalastasan ng tao sa kanyang kapwa. Ang layunin nito’y magkuwento ng isang pangyayari o kawil ng mga pangyayari.

Ang mga pang-araw-araw na karanasan ng tao, ang mga pagbabagong nagaganap sa kanyang buhay at sa kanyang kapaligiran, ang mga binabalak niyang gawin, ang mga pangyayaring nagdulot sa kanya ng ligaya’t tuwa; ang lahat ng ito’y ikinukuwento niya sa iba. Potensiyal na materyal sa isang pagsasalaysay ang bawat pagkilos at pagsasalita ng tao, bawat pagbabago sa kanyang kalagayan at bawat pangyayari sa kanyang kapaligiran.

Ang pagsasalaysay ay isang teksto na naglalayong magkwento at aliwin ang mambabasa .


Nagsasaad o nagpapakita ng anyo, hugis, kulay at katangian.


Nagpapaliwanag  o nagsasaad ng isang katotohanan, palagay o opinion.


May layuning mapapaniwala o mapasang-ayon ang iba sa kanyang katwiran.























      Learning how to make a candle from crayons is a fun and creative way to recycle old crayons and stubs. You can make candles entirely from crayons, or use them to add color and charm to candles made from other types of wax. This can be a terrific project to do with kids, although you must remember that hot wax can be dangerous.

       Problem Statement:

      How to Make Candles from Old Crayons?




• Wicks
• White wax
• Glass jars
• Wax boil bags
• Old broken crayons
• Pencil or Chops Sticks



1. Use clear jars that are generally laying about the house.
2. Pickles and jelly jars are excellent for this type of project.
3. You can try those boil bags, wicks, and wax at a local craft store.
4. Gather all your broken crayons and separate them into color schemes.
5. I used a sharp knife that worked much better.

The hard part of this project was getting the wicks to stand up straight while we poured the wax. Here’s a trick, tape the wick to a pencil or a chop stick (if you have one) and lay that on top of the jar. If the wick is not straight, the candle will not burn well.

6. After the jars are ready, melt the white wax in a boil bag.
7. Pour the wax, a little at a time, add the broken crayons to the mix.
8. Since the wax is hot, the crayons melt, and the effect is very artistic!
9. Once the jar is full, top it off with a handful of some interesting color. The hot wax caused the colors to “run” into the candles.


     It was concluded that using crayons in the production of candles make significant difference or great impact on the effects of the samples when applied on the candles. The crayons give color to candles and they are  same as wax.




The Envious Kings

In a land far, far away, that would take ordinary folk twelve days to ride to, from here, but will only take you and I, a moment when we go to sleep. For don’t you know that magic happens only in the wonderful world of dreams

Two kingdoms were ruled over by two brothers. One was King Roly, and the other King Poly. These two kings were very fat, as were their subjects, for their lands were very rich. Corn and wheat grew by themselves, with never a man’s hand to plant or tend them. Milk flowed in streams, and nobody knew where it came from, and at dinnertime lovely meals on gleaming golden plates walked onto the table, on little stumpy legs.

When a family need a new home, stones and mortar would gather them selves together, the stones would sit one upon the other with the mortar in between, until they had built themselves into a fine house.

In spite of the easy life that the two kings had, they were not happy, for each of them kept thinking that the other one had a bigger and better palace, or owned more horses, or had more jewels or even had creamier milk.

One bright summers day, when King Roly thought that he had seen King Poly riding a finer horse than his, he decided to go to war with his brother. So he ordered his generals to assemble his army outside the palace gates.

There the army stood, looking splendid with all the soldiers wearing their best armour, shining in the summer sun. All the different coloured flags streamed out in the gentle breeze, and the lances standing straight, pointing into the blue sky. But oh dear me! the soldiers had grown nearly as fat as their king. They stood in a long line, with all their tummies sticking out, and their chins wobbling.

King Poly, on hearing of his brother’s plans, also ordered out his army, but his soldiers too, had become too fat. The cavalry could hardly mount their horses, and when they eventually did manage to get on, the poor beasts could hardly walk for the weight of the fat soldiers.

After a long long time, and much huffing and puffing, the two armies faced each other on a big field, which divided the two kingdoms. King Roly rode up and down, telling his army that they must conquer the cruel and greedy army of King Poly.

The soldiers of both armies looked at each other, and thought how nice it would be, just to sit down and eat the delicious food, that was preparing itself on the cool green field between them. They watched the two fat kings as they rode up and down, their medals sparkling in the sunshine. They watched the generals riding behind the kings, each one trying to out-do the other, “yes your majesty, no your majesty”, and trying to appear clever and witty.

Then the good fairy that watches over all people, and tries to stop them from doing silly things, waved her magic wand. Tiny golden stars flew from the wand’s tip, and spread out amongst the two armies.

Some of the stars landed on the spears, and as they touched, so the spears sprouted leave and became young trees. Some of the stars fell onto the longbows, and when they touched, the bows unsprang and buried themselves into the earth and grew into thorn bushes, and some of the stars on the sharp little arrows, they turned into stinging nettles.

The two armies watched as all their weapons of war, changed into growing things, and became a impenetrable forest dividing the two countries, so that neither side could cross over to the other.

King Roly could not ever again go to war with his brother King Poly, and King Poly, likewise could not fight King Roly. So all the men in the two armies could go back home, and happily grow fatter and fatter.

Now in that far-off land, where being fat was thought of to be beautiful, only King Roly and King Poly grew thin. For day after day, they walked up and down on each side of the mighty forest, wondering what the other was doing on the other side.

The more they walked, the more they worried, and the thinner they became. The thinner they became the faster they walked, which made them thinner still, until on day they grew so thin that they turned into bean-stalks. Their feet turned into roots, burrowing into the rich soil. And their necks grew taller and taller, until their heads reached above the trees of the forest, and they could see right across. And there they stand to this day, watching each other, never moving lest the other should move first.

And the people of the two kingdoms? Oh yes, they are still there, watched over by the good fairy. They are happy and contented. Sometimes, just now and then, they glance over at the beanstalks towering above the forest, and they smile in a knowing way to themselves, trusting that the good fairy, aways just out of sight is always near, keeping her magic for when it may be needed.

Have we a good fairy? Of course we have! For who do you think takes care of us in the magical land of dreams, and brings us back safe again, into the light of a bright new day?




The grass glistened around the palace. Because it is always wet with Queen’s tears, and even the covering of toadstools did not stop the little people from getting their feet wet.

The Elves and Fairies spent their days silently polishing the gossamer threads that hung between the bushes in the wood, always hoping that perhaps, tomorrow a child might believe in them.

Now my little friend, grown-ups will tell you that tomorrow never comes. Don’t you believe it—–sometimes it does! And one wise little girl knew that it does, and because she knew that it does, it did! Tomorrow came, and she knew that it came, and being the only one that knew, she put on her coat, and she put on her shoes and her scarf, and all by herself she went out into the woods and stayed.

She played so prettily, and she played so long. She ran and she skipped, and she jumped and she sang. And because it was tomorrow she did not get tired, and she did not get hungry, but after a long time, she did want somebody to play with.

She looked up into the trees and called for the birds to play with her, but the birds were too busy building their nests. She called to the little animals to play with her, but they were too busy scurrying around looking after their babies. And then she called for anybody to please come and play with her.

In the magic land of tomorrow, all the little people stopped what they were doing, and peeped out from under the toadstools, from over the gossamer threads and from inside the bushes.

One little elf, a little bolder than the rest, called out to the child. “Do you mean us, do you want us to play with you?” “Yes, yes please,” said the little girl, bending down and peering under a red spotted toadstool.

Under the toadstool she saw a beautiful fairy, all dressed in shimmering gossamer threads. She had tiny golden slippers that shone like the full moon lighting a dark night, and on her head a tiara made of dew-drops, that twinkled and glittered like the morning light.




James Henry Trotter, four years old, lives with his loving parents in a pretty and bright cottage by the sea in the south of England. James’s world is turned upside down when, while on a shopping trip in London, his mother and father are devoured. James is forced to go and live with his two horrible aunts, Spiker and Sponge, who live on a high, desolate hill near the white cliffs of Dover. For three years Spiker and Sponge physically and verbally abuse James, not allowing him to venture beyond the hill or play with other children. Around the house James is treated as a drudge, beaten for hardly any reason, improperly fed, and forced to sleep on bare floorboards in the attic.

One summer afternoon when he is crying in the bushes, James stumbles across a strange little man, who, mysteriously, knows all about James’s plight and gives him a sack of tiny glowing-green crocodile tongues. The man promises that if James mixes the contents of the sack with a jug of water and ten hairs from his own head, the result will be a magic potion which, when drunk, will bring him happiness and great adventures. On the way back to the house, James trips and spills the sack onto the peach tree outside his home, which had previously never given fruit. The tree becomes enchanted through the tongues, and begins to blossom; indeed a certain peach grows to the size of a large house. The aunts discover this and make money off the giant peach while keeping James locked away. At night the aunts shove James outside to collect rubbish from the crowd, but instead he curiously ventures inside a juicy, fleshy tunnel which leads to the hollow stone in the middle of the cavernous fruit. Entering the stone, James discovers a band of rag-tag anthropomorphic insects, also transformed by the magic of the green tongues.

James quickly befriends the insect inhabitants of the peach, who become central to the plot and James’ companions in his adventure. The insects loathe the aunts and their hilltop home as much as James, and they were waiting for him to join them so they can escape together. The Centipede bites through the stem of the peach with his powerful jaws, releasing it from the tree, and it begins to roll down the hill, squashing Spiker and Sponge flat in its wake. Inside the stone the inhabitants cheer as they feel the peach rolling over the aunts. The peach rolls through villages, houses, and a famous chocolate factory before falling off the cliffs and into the sea. The peach floats in the English Channel, but quickly drifts away from civilization and into the expanses of the Atlantic Ocean. Hours later, not far from the Azores, the peach is attacked by a swarm of hundreds of sharks. Using the blind Earthworm as bait, the ever resourceful James and the other inhabitants of the peach lure over five hundred seagulls to the peach from the nearby islands. The seagulls are then tied to the broken stem of the fruit using spiderwebs from the Spider and strings of white silk from the Silkworm. The mass of seagulls lifts the giant peach into the air and away from the sharks, with no damage to the plant.

As the seagulls strain to get away from the giant peach, they merely carry it higher and higher, and the seagulls take the giant peach great distances. The Centipede entertains with ribald dirges to Sponge and Spiker, but in his excitement he falls off the peach into the ocean and has to be rescued by James. That night, thousands of feet in the air, the giant peach floats through mountain-like, moonlit clouds. There the inhabitants of the peach see a group of magical ghost-like figures living within the clouds, “Cloud-Men”, who control the weather.

As the Cloud-Men gather up the cloud in their hands to form hailstones and snowballs to throw down to the world below, the loud-mouthed Centipede berates the Cloud-Men for making snowy weather in the summertime. Angered, an army of Cloud-Men appear from the cloud and pelt the giant peach with hail so fiercely and powerfully that the peach is severely damaged, with entire chunks taken out of it, and the giant fruit begins leaking its peach juice. All of this shrinks the peach somewhat, although because it is now lighter the seagulls are able to pull it quicker through the air. As the seagulls strain to get away from the Cloud-Men, the giant peach smashes through an unfinished rainbow the Cloud-Men were preparing for dawn, infuriating them even further. One Cloud-Man almost gets on the peach by climbing down the silken strings tied to the stem, but James asks the Centipede to bite through some of the strings. When he does a single freed seagull, to which the Cloud-Man is hanging from, is enough the carry him away from the peach as Cloud-Men are weightless.

As the sun rises, the inhabitants of the giant peach see the glimmering skyscrapers of New York City peeking above the clouds. The people below see the giant peach suspended in the air by a swarm of hundreds of seagulls, and panic, believing it to be a floating, orange-coloured, spherical nuclear bomb. The military, police, fire, and rescue services are all called out, and people begin running to air raid shelters and subway stations, believing the city is about to be destroyed. A huge passenger jet flies past the giant peach, almost hitting it, and severing the silken strings between the seagulls and the peach. The seagulls free, the peach begins to fall to the ground, but it is saved when it is impaled upon the tip of the Empire State Building. The people on the 86th floor observation deck at first believe the inhabitants of the giant peach to be monsters or Martians, but when James appears from within the skewered peach and explains his story, the people hail James and his insect friends as heroes. They are given a welcoming home parade, and James gets what he wanted for three long years – playmates in the form of millions of potential new childhood friends. The skewered, battered remains of the giant peach are brought down to the streets by steeplejacks, where its delicious flesh is eaten up by ten thousand children, all now James’s friends. Meanwhile, the peach’s other former residents, the anthropomorphic insects, all go on to find very interesting futures in the world of humans.

In the last chapter of the book, it is revealed That the giant hollowed-out stone which had once been at the center of the peach is now a mansion located in Central Park. James lives out the rest of his life in the giant peach stone, which becomes an open tourist attraction and the ever-friendly James has all the friends he has ever wanted.




Once long ago in Japan there lived a couple who had no children. They prayed to the gods for a child, even one as small as a finger, and finally their prayers wee answered. The child born to them was so samll that they named him ” Issun Boshi”, ‘ Little One Inch’. When Issun boshi reached the age of 15, he said goodbye to his parents and set out for Kyoto, the capital city, to seek his fortune.

In Kyoto he found employment in a wealthy household. He could not do much work because of his size, but his diligence and sincerity pleased his master and his mistress. And their daughter found him delightful.

One day Issun Boshi accompanied the girl to the temple. On the way, two giants leaped out in front of them from benind some bushes.

Issun Boshi deliberately drew their attention to him so that the girl could escape. But then the giants were furious with him and one of them picked him up and swallowed him. Issun Boshi had a needle his mother had given him. He used to wear it around his waist like a sword. When he found himself in the giant’s stomach he took the needle from its scabbard and began to stab the giant’s tomach with it. Then climbing out through the gullet he stormed into the giant’s mouth where he wreaked havoc with his needle. The giant was frightened and spat him out.

When the other giant bent down to look at him, Issun Boshi stabbed him in the eye. The giants had enough. They ran away, on holding a hand to his mouth and the other to his eye.

In their haste they left behind a mallet which Issun Boshi and the girl, recognised as a magical object.

” You have to hit on the ground and make a wish.” said the girl.

So they hit the mallet on the ground and made a wish. The next moment, Issun Boshi had grown to normal size and stood clad in the armour of a samurai !

The girl’s father had no hesitation in giving his daughter in marriage to Issun Boshi, and the young samurai proved to be a devoted husband. Oh, yes, he brought his parents too to live with him and they, though happy to see their dear son grown up, continued to call him Issun Boshi!




Jimmy was a lazy, good for nothing fellow. he lounged about the house all day, much to his wife Frinzy’s annoyance. One day, Frinzy told her husband to dig the patch of land outside their hut .” I ill borrow a spade from our neighbour.” she said. ” Then we can plant some vegetables.”

Jimmy agreed reluctantly. The soil was hard and he was soon tired. He leaned against the spade for a moment, then hearing Frinzy’s voice , he quickly resumed digging.

Thunk! His spade struck metal. Jimmy excitedly scraped away the mud. It was a big cooking pot. As Jimmy leaned over to see it there was anything in it, his pouch of tobacco and some coins feel into the pot. Jimmy bent to retrieve them, then jumped back in surprise. There were two pouches and double the mumber of coins !

” Come quickly !” he called to Frinzy. ” Look what I’ve found !”

When Frinzy came over, she was so excited that she put the coins in four or five times.

Soon there was a tidy pile of money. She stooped to collect the coins and lost her balance. Into the pot she fell and came out two Frinzy’s, one a mirror image of the other.

They immediately set to squabbling over Jimmy.

Jimmy stood irresolute for a moment, then jumped into the pot. the new Jimmy refused to leave with his wife till they were given an identical set of possessions- right downto a blanket with two holes. But how did he recognise his wife.

She was a mirror image so her nosering was on the left nostril, while the real Frinzy had always worn hers on the right.

Electrical tools Sample : San Marcos H/S

electrical tools

Needle-nose pliers (also known as long-nose pliers, pinch-nose pliers, or snipe-nose pliers) are both cutting and gripping pliers used by electricians and other tradesmen to bend, re-position and cut wire. Their namesake long gripping nose provides excellent control and reach for fine work in small or crowded electrical, while cutting edges nearer the pliers’ joint provide “one-tool” convenience. Given their long shape, they are useful for reaching into cavities where cables (or other materials) have become stuck or unreachable to fingers or other means.

Stubby Screw Driver

  1. A tool used for turning screws.
  2. A cocktail made with vodka and orange juice.


A simple manual wire stripper is a pair of opposing blades much like scissors or wire cutters. The addition of a center notch makes it easier to cut the insulation without cutting the wire. This type of wire stripper is used by rotating it around the insulation while applying pressure in order to make a cut around the insulation. Since the insulation is not bonded to the wire, it then pulls easily off the end. This is the most versatile type of wire stripper.

A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for drilling holes in various materials or fastening various materials together with the use of fasteners. The attachment is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill and rotated while pressed against the target material. The tip, and sometimes edges, of the cutting tool does the work of cutting into the target material. This may be slicing off thin shavings (twist drills or auger bits), grinding off small particles (oil drilling), crushing and removing pieces of the workpiece (SDS masonry drill), countersinking, counterboring, or other operations.

A screwdriver is a tool for driving screws or bolts with special slots, and sometimes for rotating other machine elements with the mating drive system. The screwdriver is made up of a head or tip, which engages with a screw, a mechanism to apply torque by rotating the tip, and some way to position and support the screwdriver

Pliers are a hand tool used to hold objects firmly, for bending, or physical compression. Generally, pliers consist of a pair of metal first-class levers joined at a fulcrum positioned closer to one end of the levers, creating short jaws on one side of the fulcrum, and longer handles on the other side. This arrangement creates a mechanical advantage, allowing the force of the hand’s grip to be amplified and focused on an object with precision. The jaws can also be used to manipulate objects too small or unwieldy to be manipulated with the fingers.

A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object. The most common uses are for driving nails, fitting parts, forging metal and breaking up objects. Hammers are often designed for a specific purpose, and vary widely in their shape and structure.

A knife (plural knives) is a cutting tool with an exposed cutting edge or blade, hand-held or otherwise, with or without a handle. Knife-like tools were used at least two-and-a-half million years ago, as evidenced by the Oldowan tools.[1][2] Originally made of rock, flint, and obsidian, knives have evolved in construction as technology has, with blades being made from bronze, copper, iron, steel, ceramics, and titanium. Many cultures have their unique version of the knife. Due to its role as humankind’s first tool, certain cultures have attached spiritual and religious significance to the knife.[3]

A hacksaw is a fine-tooth saw with a blade held under tension in a frame, used for cutting materials such as metal or plastics. Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal arch with a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. The blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. On the push stroke, the arch will flex slightly, decreasing the tension on the blade.

Diagonal pliers (or wire cutters or diagonal cutting pliers or diagonal cutters) are pliers intended for the cutting of wire (they are generally not used to grab or turn anything). The plane defined by the cutting edges of the jaws intersects the joint rivet at an angle or “on a diagonal”, hence the name. Instead of using a shearing action as with scissors, they cut by indenting and wedging the wire apart. The jaw edges are ground to a symmetrical “V” shape; thus the two jaws can be visualized to form the letter “X“, as seen end-on when fully occluded.

A file is a metalworking, woodworking and plastic working tool used to cut fine amounts of material from a workpiece. It most commonly refers to the hand tool style, which takes the form of a steel bar with a case hardened surface and a series of sharp, parallel teeth. Most files have a narrow, pointed tang at one end to which a handle can be fitted.[1] A similar tool is the rasp. This is an older form, with simpler teeth. As they have larger clearance between teeth, these are usually used on softer, non-metallic materials.

Round File is a file with a circular cross section; used to file the inside of holes

file – a steel hand tool with small sharp teeth on some or all of its surfaces; used for smoothing wood or metal

spirit level or bubble level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb). Different types of spirit levels may be used by carpenters, stonemasons, bricklayers, other building trades workers, surveyors, millwrights and other metalworkers, and in some photographic or videographic work.

Philippine National Heroes : San Marcos H/S

 Dr.Jose P. Rizal

Si Dr. José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda[1] (Ika-19 ng Hunyo 1861Ika-30 ng Disyembre 1896) ay ang pampito sa labing-isang anak ng mag-asawang Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro at ng asawa nitong si Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda y Quintos. Ipinanganak si José Rizal sa CalambaLaguna. Sina Saturnina, Paciano, Narcissa, Olimpia, Lucia, Maria, Jose, Concepcion, Josefa, Trinidad at Soledad ang mga anak nina Francisco at Teodora.

Ang ina ni Rizal ay siyang kaniyang unang guro at nagturo sa kaniya ng abakada noong siya ay tatlong taon pa lamang. Noong siya naman ay tumuntong ng siyam na taon, pinadala siya sa Biñan, Laguna upang mag-aral sa ilalim ng pamamatnubay ni Justiano Aquino Cruz. Ilang buwan ang nakalipas, pinayuhan niya ang mga magulang ni Rizal na pag-aralin siya sa Maynila.

Ang Ateneo Municipal de Manila ang unang paaralan sa Maynila na kaniyang pinasukan noong ikadalawa ng Enero 1872.Sa kaniyang pananatili sa paaralang ito, natanggap niya ang lahat ng mga pangunahing medalya at notang sobresaliente sa lahat ng aklat. Sa paaralan ding ito niya natanggap ang kaniyang Batsilyer sa Sining na may notang sobresalyente kalakip ang pinakamataas na karangalan. Nang sumunod na taon, siya ay kumuha ng Pilosopiya at Panitikan sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas. Sa Ateneo, kasabay niyang kinuha ang agham ng Pagsasaka. Pagkaraan, kinuha niya ang kursong panggagamot sa nasabing Pamantasan (Santo Tomas) pagkatapos mabatid na ang kaniyang ina ay tinubuan ng katarata. Noong ika-5 ng 1882, nang dahil sa hindi na niya matanggap ang tagibang at mapansuring pakikitungo ng mga paring Kastila sa mga katutubong mag-aaral, nagtungo siya sa Espanya. Doo’y pumasok siya sa Universidad Central de Madrid, kung saan, sa ikalawang taon ay natapos niya ang karerang Medisina, bilang “sobresaliente” (napakahusay). Nang sumunod na taon, nakamit niya ang titulo sa Pilosopiya-at-Titik. Naglakbay siya sa Pransya at nagpakadalubhasa sa paggamot ng sakit sa mata sa isang klinika roon. Pagkatapos ay tumungo siya sa HeidelbergAlemanya, kung saan natamo pa ang isang titulo.

Sa taon din ng kaniyang pagtatapos ng Medisina, siya ay nag-aral ng wikang Ingles, bilang karagdagan sa mga wikang kaniya nang nalalaman gaya ng Pranses. Isang dalubwika si Rizal na nakaaalam ng ArabeKatalanTsinoIngglesPransesAlemanGriyegoEbreo,ItalyanoHaponLatinPortugesRusoSanskritEspanyolTagalog, at iba pang mga katutubong wika ng Pilipinas.

Andres Bonifacio

Si Andrés Bonifacio (Nobyembre 301863 - Mayo 101897) ay siyang namuno sa rebolusyon ng Pilipinas laban sa Espanya, ang unang rebolusyon sa Asya na lumaban sa pananakop ng mga bansang imperyalista sa Europa.

Siya ay isinilang noong ika-30 ng Nobyembre1863 sa TondoMaynila. Ang kanyang magulang ay sina Santiago Bonifacio at Catalina de Castro. Siya ay nagsimulang mag-aral sa paaralan niDon Guillermo Osmeña sa Meisic sa Binondo, Maynila subalit siya’y maagang nahinto sa pag-aaral. Bagamat siya’y nahinto sa pag-aaral, may angkin siyang talino at marunong siyang bumasa at sumulat, at dalubhasa na rin sa pagsasalita sa wikang Kastila.

Naulila sa magulang nang maaaga sa edad na 14. Naging tindero siya ng ratan at pamaypay na gawa sa papel de hapon. Nagtrabaho din siya bilang clerksales agent at bodegista (warehouseman). Nahilig siyang basahin ang mga nobela ni Jose Rizal at nang itinatag ang La Liga Filipina, sumapi siya kasama ni Apolinario Mabini.

Bagamat mahirap ay mahilig bumasa at sumulat ng mga bagay na may kabuluhan lalo na kung ito ay tungkol sa bayan, karapatang-pantao at kasarinlan ng inang-bayan. Siya ay may diwa ng paghihimagsik laban sa malupit na mananakop na Kastila. Siya rin ay nagnais na magbangon ng pamahalaang malaya na naging daan upang kanyang maitatag ang Katipunan na kakatawan sa himagsikan at upang maging wasto at panatag sa kanyang adhikaing kalayaan ng bayan. Noong 1892, matapos dakpin at ipatapon si Dr. Jose Rizal sa Dapitan, itinatag ni Bonifacio angKatipunan o kilala rin bilang “Kataastasan,Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan“ (KKK), isang lihim na kapisanang mapanghimagsik, na di naglaon ay naging sentro ng hukbong Pilipinong mapanghimagsik. Kasama ni Bonifacio ay sina Valentin DiazDeodato Arellano (bayaw ni Marcelo H. del Pilar), Teodoro Plata (bayaw ni Bonifacio), Ladislao Diwa, at ilang manggagawa sa pagtatag ng Katipunan sa Calle Azcarraga (ngayon ay Avenida Claro M. Recto) malapit sa Calle Candelaria (ngayon ay Kalye Elcano).

Sa pagtatag ng Katipunan, kinilala si Andres Bonifacio bilang “Ama ng Rebolusyon” sa Pilipinas. Si Bonifacio at ang kanyang mga kasamahan sa Katipunan ay may iisang layunin na marahil ay siyang naging dahilan upang ang kanilang pakikidigma ay maging matagumpay.

Sa Katipunan, “Supremo” ang kanyang titulo at di naglaon nang itinatag niya ang Pamahalang Mapaghimagsik ay tinawag siyang “Pangulo ng Haring Bayang Katagalugan“. Dito rin niya nakilala siGregoria de Jesus na tinawag niyang Lakambini. Noong Agosto 231896, sa maliit na baryo ngPugad Lawin (ngayo’y Bahay Toro, Project 8, Lungsod Quezon) sa Balintawak ay tinipon nya ang mga Katipunero at isa isa’y pinunit ang kanilang mga sedula.

Gregorio Del Pilar

Si Gregorio del Pilar ay ang pinakabatang heneral na lumaban sa Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano. Siya ay isinilang sa BulakanBulakan noong Nobyembre 141875 kina Fernando del Pilar at Felipa Sempio.

Si del Pilar ay unang nag-aral kay Maestro de la san jose at pagkatapos ay nagpatuloy sa paaralan ng mananagalong na si Pedro Serrano Laktaw. Nag-aral siya sa Ateneo Municipalnoong 1880 at tumira sa bahay ng kanyang tiyo na si Deodato Arellano kung saan sinasabing itinatag ang Katipunan. Sa murang isipan ni del Pilar natimo ang mapanganib na mensahero ng mga propagandista. Noong Marso 1896, nagtapos siya sa Ateneo sa kursong Bachiller en Artes, binalak niyang magturo subalit sumiklab ang apoy.

Sa murang gulang sumapi siya sa Katipunan. Naging pinuno ng mga katipunero at sumanib siya sa tropa ni Col. Vicente Enriquez kung saan napalaban siya at bunga ng maigting na pagtatanggol siya ay nahirang bilang tinyente sa gulang na 19. Ginawa siyang heneral ng isang brigada sa gulang na 22. Ang pagsalakay niya sa PaombongBulakan at Quingwa (ngayon ayPlaridelBulakan) ang nagpatanyag sa kanya. Napahanga niya si Aguinaldo at itinaas siya bilang tinyente kung saan pinalaya niya ang lalawigang ito. Nang mamatay si Hen. Antonio Lunasi del Pilar ang humalili sa maliit na hukbo ni Aguinaldo. Nang tinugis sila ng mga Amerikano saPasong Tirad noong Disyembre 21899, nagpaiwan siya upang abangan ang mga kaaway habang tumatakas si Aguinaldo.

 Emilio Aguinaldo

Si Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (Marso 22, 1869 – Pebrero 6, 1964) ay ang kauna-unahang Pangulo ng Republika ng Pilipinas. Siya ay isang Filipinong heneral, pulitiko, pinuno ng kalayaan at bayanina nakibaka para sa kasarinlan ng Pilipinas.

Pinamunuan niya ang isang bigong pag-aalsa laban sa Espanya noong 1896. Makaraang magapi ng Estados Unidos ang Espanya noong 1898, ipinahayag niya ang kalayaan ng Pilipinas at umupo bilang unang pangulo ng Pilipinas noong Hunyo 1899. Malakas ang kaniyang loob subalit nilarawang baguhan sapagkat naniwalang tatangkilin ng Estados Unidos ang kaniyang hangarin. Nang maging ganap at lantad ang mga hangarin ng Estados Unidos hinggil sa Pilipinas, muli niyang pinamunuan ang isang pag-aaklas mula 1899 hanggang 1901. Nadakip siya sa bandang huli ng mga Amerikano noong Marso 1901, makaraang makipaglaban sa loob ng dalawang taon. Nanumpa siya ng katapatan sa Estados Unidos subalit nagsuot ng isang itim na bow tie hanggang sa tuluyang nakamit ng Pilipinasang kalayaan noong 1946. Tumakbo siya bilang pangulo noong 1935 ngunit nagapi sa halalan ni Manuel L. Quezon. Sa mga huling panahon ng kaniyang buhay, nagsilbi siya sa Konseho ng Estado ng Pilipinas.

Apolinario Mabini

Si Apolinario Mabini y Maranan (Hulyo 231864Mayo 131903), kilala bilang ang “Dakilang Lumpo” o “Dakilang Paralitiko”, ay isang Pilipino theoretician na nagsulat ng konstitusyon ng Unang Republika ng Pilipinas noong 1899-1901, at naglingkod bilang ang kauna-unahang punong ministronoong 1899. Ipinanganak siya sa Talaga, TanauanBatangas sa mahihirap na mga magulang, sina Inocencio Mabini at Dionisia Maranan.

Siya ay natuto ng abakada mula sa kanyang ina at ang pagsulat ay sa kanyang ingkong natutuhan. Nag-aral siya sa mataas na paaralan at nagpatuloy sa Colegio de San Juan de Letran na kung saan natamo ang katibayan sa pagka-Bachiller en Artes at naging propesor sa Latin. Sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas naman siya nakapagtapos ng pagkaabogado noong 1894. Samantalang nag-aral ng batas, sumapi siya sa La Liga Filipina ni Jose Rizal.

Si Mabini ay nagkasakit noong 1896 ng “infantile paralysis” na lumumpo sa kanya. Ipinasundo siya ni Aguinaldo at sila’y nagkamabutihan. Siya’y lihim na ipinatawag ni Aguinaldo at hinirang siyang opisyal na tagapayo. Nang pasinayaan ni Aguinaldo ang Pamahalaang Republika inatasan niya si Mabini bilang kalihim panglabas (prime minister) at pangulo ng mga konseho. Sa panahong ito isinulat niya ang kanyang tanyag na akdang “Tunay na Dekalogo”.

Noong 1899, si Mabini ay nadakip ng mga Amerikano sa Nueva Ecija at ipinabilanggo. Kanyang isinulat noon ang “Pagbangon at Pagbagsak ng Himagsikang Filipino”“El Simil de Alejandro”, at “El Libra”. Noong ika-5 ng Enero1901, si Mabini ay ipinatapon sa Guam, ngunit kusa siyang nagbalik sa bansa noong Pebrero1903 kapalit ng panunumpa ng katapatan sa Estados Unidos. Siya ay nagkasakit ng kolera at namatay noong ika-13 ng Mayo1903 sa NagtahanMaynila.


Ang salitang Gomburza ay nabuo mula sa pangalan ng tatlong pari, na sina Padre Jose Burgos, PadreJacinto Zamora, at Padre Mariano Gomez, na binitay noong 17 Pebrero 1873 ng mga Espanyol dahil sa pagbibintang sa kanila sa kaso ng subersyon at pag-uugnay sa kanila sa nangyaring rebelyon sa Cavite noong 1872. Dahil sa kanilang hindi makatarungang kamatayan, sumiklab ang damdamin ng mga Pilipino at nag-iwan ito ng matinding epekto, lalong-lalo na kay 


Mariano Gomez

Ipinanganak noong 2 Agosto 1799 sa Santa Cruz, Maynila, si Mariano Gomez ang nauna na binitay sa Bagumbayan at ang pinakamatanda sa tatlong martir. Siya ay nagtapos sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas at nagsilbi bilang pari ng parokya sa Bacoor, Cavite. Itinatag niya rin ang pahayagan na La Verdad (The Truth) kung saan ipinapakita nito ang hindi magandang kondisyon ng bansa. Inilimbag din sa pahayagang ito ang mga liberal na artikulo ni Burgos.

Ang kanyang pamosong huling mga salita ay, “Let us go where the leaves never move without the will of God.”

Jacinto Zamora

Ang susunod na binitay ay si Jacinto Zamora, na ipinanganak noong 14 Agosto 1835 sa Pandacan. Iniugnay siya sa rebelyon sa Cavite noong 1872 dahil sa kanyang imbitasyon na may nakasaad na, “Grand Reunion… our friends are well provided with powder and ammunition.”Ang mga pahayag na ito ay maaaring mangahulugan ng pagrerebelde, ngunit ito ay isa lamang paanyaya ni Zamora sa kanyang mga kaibigan na sila ay maglaro ng panguigui, isang kilalang laro sa baraha, at ang salitang powder and ammunition ay mga simbolo lamang na sila ay may sapat na salapi upang maglaro buong magdamag.

Jose Burgos

Si Jose Burgos, ipinanganak noong 9 Pebrero sa Vigan, Ilocos Sur, ang huling binitay sa tatlong paring martir. Siya ang pinakanatatangi sa tatllong pari dahil sa siya ay nagtamo ng dalawang titulo sa pagkadoktor, isa sa teolohiya at isa pa sa canon law. Isa rin siyang prolipikong manunulat at konektado sa Manila Cathedral.

Ang kanyang kamatayan ang pinakamadula sa lahat. Isa sa mga detalye ng kanyang kamatayan ay nang siya ay tumayo at sumigaw na, “Wala akong ginawang anumang kasalanan!” (“But I haven’t committed any crime!)

  Emilio Jacinto

Isinilang si Emilio Jacinto noong Disyembre 15, 1875 sa Trozo, Maynila. Ang mga magulang niya ay sina Mariano Jacinto at Josefa Dizon. Nag-aral siya sa kolehiyo ng San Juan de Letran at kumuha ng abogasya sa UST ngunit ito ay natigil nang siya ay sumapi sa Katipunan noong 1893. sa gulang na 19 siya ay isa sa mga magagaling na pinuno ng Katipunan.

Kinilala siyang Utak ng Katipunan. Gumamit siya ng sagisag-panulat na Pingkian sa Katipunan. Itinatag niya ang pahayagang Kalayaan, ang pahayagan ng katipunan. Ito’y pinamatnugutan katulong si Pio Valenzuela. ang sagisag-panulat na kanyang ginamit ay Dimas Ilaw. Siya ang sumulat ng Kartilya ng Katipunan. Si Jacinto ay lubhang nasugatan ngunit pinakawalan dahil sa sakit na malaria at disenterya. siya ay binawian ng buhay sa Sta. Cruz, Laguna noong abril 16, 1899 sa edad na 24.

   Antonio Luna

Si Antonio Luna (Oktubre 29, 1866 – Hunyo 5, 1899) ang nakakabatang kapatid ni Juan Luna.

Ipinanganak siya sa Maynila noong ika-29 ng Oktubre1866 sa BinondoMaynila. Siya ang bunsong anak nina Joacquin Luna at Laureana Novicio. Nagtapos siya ng Bachiller en Artes saAteneo de Manila noong 1883 sa murang edad na 15. Kumuha rin siya ng kursong parmasyutika sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas at nakamit niya ang kanyang lisensya sa kursong ito saUnibersidad de Barcelona. Natapos din siya sa pagkakadalubhasa sa parmasyutika sa Ghent,Belhika. Sa propesyon ay isa siyang parmasyotiko.

Ang pagsusulat ang kanyang libangan. Iniakda niya ang El Nomatozario del Paerdismo na nalathala sa Madrid noong 1893. Ito ang kanyang pinakamalaking naiambag niya sa literaturang pang-medisina. Siya ang nagtatag ng La Independencia at nagpapadala rin siya ng mga lathalain sa ibang pahayagan.

Sa simula pa’y isa siyang tagpagtaguyod ng paghingi ng reporma sa mapayapang pamamaraan. Dahil sa hinalang siya ay isa sa mga teroristang laban sa pamahalaan, dinakip siya ng mga maykapangyarihang Kastila, nilitis at ikinulong ng mga Kastila.

Nang siya ay makalaya, nag-aral siya ng iba’t ibang paraan ng pakikipaglaban sa Ghent. Pagbalik niya sa Pilipinas, sumapi siya sa rebolusyonaryong pamahalaan ni Emilio Aguinaldo. Hinirang siyang direktor ng digmaan at tagapamahalang heneral ng Hukbong Rebolusyonaryo. Siya ay ginawang kabahagi ng sandatahang lakas laban sa mga Amerikano.

Bilang isang sundalo, si Antonio’y mahigpit magparusa. Sa panahon ng pakikipagdigmaan, pinagsumikapan niyang maipailalim sa isang disiplina ang mga tauhan sa Batalyon ng Kabite. Isa sa kanyang madugong pakikipaglaban ay naganap sa La Loma na kung saan ay napatay si Major Jose Torres Bugallon. Marami pang ibang pinuno ng kalaban ang nagapi ni Heneral Luna ngunit dumating ang isang pagkakataon na sila ay natalo at ito ay naganap sa Caloocan.

Natagpuan ni Heneral Luna ang kanyang kamatayan noong ika-8 ng Hunyo1899 sa Cabanatuan sa lalawigan ng Nueva Ecija. Nagtungo siya roon sa pagtupad sa isang ipinalalagay na pagtawag ni Heneral Aguinaldo upang dumalo sa isang pulong.Habang nasa loob ng simbahan ng Cabanatuan, binaril siya ng mga sundalo ni Aguinaldo na inihingi niyang bigyan ng disiplina.

 Melchora Quino

Si Melchora Aquino (kapanganakan Enero 61812, kamatayan Marso 21919) o Tandang Sora ay hindi nagkaroon ng pagkakataong mag-aral subalit kung pakikipagkapwa tao ang pag-uusapan ay nasa kanya na ang mga katangiang maaring ituro ng isang guro sa paaralan. Siya ay may isang maliit na tindahan sa Balintawak. Tinagurian siyang Tandang Sora, sapagkat matanda na siya noong sumiklab ang himagsikang pinamumunuan ni Andres Bonifacio noong taong 1896.

Siya ay ikinasal kay Fulgencio Ramos, isang cabeza de barrio ay may anim na anak. Namatay si Ginoong Ramos noong pitong taong gulang pa lang ang kanilang bunsong anak. Mula noon siya na ang nagtaguyod sa buong pamilya at hindi muling nagpakasal.

Noong Agosto1896, ang kalupitan ng mga Kastila ay lalong tumindi dahil sa pagkakatuklas ng nalalapit na paghihimagsik ng mga katipunero ni Andres Bonifacio. Maraming mamamayan ang hinuli at pinahirapan at pilit na pinagtatapat ng tungkol sa mga lihim ng Katipunan. May mga nakatakas at sa kagubatan nakapagtago at dito nila nakatagpo si Tandang Sora. Kinupkop sila ng matanda, pinakain at pinabaunan ng konting salapi at pinapupunta sa lugar na ligtas sa pag-uusig ng mga Kastila. Lahat ng dumudulog sa munting tahanan ni Tandang Sora ay kanyang pinagyayaman, bata man o matanda, babae o lalaki.

Natunugan ng mga Kastila ang kabutihan ni Tandang Sora, lalo na sa mga katipunero kaya’t siya ay hinuli at ipinatapon sa pulo ng Marianas. Bumalik sa Pilipinas si Tandang Sora nang ito ay nasa pamahalaan na ng mga Amerikano. Matandang-matanda na siya at walang nalalabing ari-arian. Nabuhay siyang isang dukha at namatay sa karalitaan noong Marso 2, 1919.

Siya ay nakahimlay sa kanyang bakuran sa Balintawak (na ngayon ay kinatatayuan ng Himlayang Pilipino, Tandang Sora, Lungsod ng Quezon)

Graciano Lopez Jaena

Si Graciano López Jaena ay isang Pilipinong manunulat na higit na kilala sa kaniyang akdangFray Butod. ‘Butod’ ang salitang Hiligaynon para sa “kabag” at katumbas din ito ng balbal na “tabatsoy”.

Dukha ang mga magulang nang isilang si Graciano Lopez Jaena sa Jaro, Iloilo, noongDisyembre 181856. Ang ina niya, si María Jacoba Jaena, ay isang mananahi lamang habang ang ama, si Plácido López, ay hamak na tagakumpuni ng kahit ano na lamang. Subalit nagkapag-aral nang kaunti si Placido samantalang lubhang matimtiman si Jacoba kaya tatag sa pag-aaral at sa pagsamba ang tinubuan ni Graciano.

Sa gulang na anim na taon, nang ipadala ng mga magulang kay Fray Francisco Jayme, na noon ay nagtuturo sa Colegio Provincial de Jaro, upang maturuan. Personal na tinuruan ni Padre Francisco Jayme si Graciano. Agad napansin ng frayle ang dunong ni Graciano at ang galing niyang magsalita.

Noong 1870, nag-aral siya ng Teyolohiya at Pilosopya sa seminaryo ng San Vicente. Labag sa nais ng ina, hangad ni Graciano na maging manggagamot (medico, physician). Nang sa wakas ay pumayag ang mga magulang, tinangka niyang pumasok sa Universidad de Santo Tomas sa Manila subalit tinanggihan siya. Hindi kasi siya nakatapos ng Bachiller en Artes na hindi itinuro sa seminario sa Jaro. Sa halip, ayon sa payo sa kanya, sa ospital ng San Juan de Dios siya nagsilbi bilang turuan (apprentice) ng mga manggagamot duon. Hindi pa tapos ang pag-aaral ni Graciano nang naubos ang tustos ng dukhang mga magulang, at napilitan siyang bumalik sa Iloilo. Ginamit niya kung ano na lamang ang natutunan, nanggamot sa mga barrio at baranggay sa pali-paligid.

Sa kanyang mga namasdan, lalong sumidhi ang puot niya sa lupit ng pag-api ng mga frayle sa mga tao. Nuong 1874, nang 18 taon gulang lamang, nakainitan na siya ng mga frayle dahil sa sinulat niyang “Fray Botod,” prayleng bundat na matakaw at mahilig sa babae. Sabi niya na “Lagi nang banggit ang Dios at Mahal na Birhen samantalang panay ang daya at pagsamantala sa mga tao.”

Hindi ito nalathala kailanman subalit maraming sipi (copias, copies) ang umikot-ikot sa Visayas. Lalong napuot ang mga frayle kay Graciano nang patuloy siyang kumalampag (campaña, campaign) ng katarungan para sa mga tao. Talagang nagpahamak siya nang patayin ng Español na alcalde ng Pototan ang ilang bilanggong katutubo. Pinilit, tumanggi si Graciano na ipahayag na “natural” ang pagkamatay ng mga bilanggo. Nagsimula siyang tumanggap ng babala na papatayin siya ng mga frayle. Nuon siya tumakas sa España.

   Mariano Ponce

Si Mariano Ponce (Marso 231863-Mayo 231918) ay isang Pilipinong manggagamot na naging pinuno ng Kilusang Propaganda na hinimok ang mag-rebolusyon ang Pilipinas laban sa mga Kastila noong 1896.

Siya ay ipinanganak sa BaliwagBulacan noong Marso 221863. Ang kanyang mga magulang ay sina Don Mariano Ponce at Maria delos Santos.

Siya ay nag-aral ng Elementarya sa Baliwag at nagtapos ng haiskul sa isang pribadong paaralan. Sa Colegio de San Juan de Letran siya nagtapos ng Bachiller en Artes. Nag-aral siya ng medisina sa Unibersidad Sentral ng Madrid.

Nakilala siya bilang propagandista, manunulat, manggagamot at tanyag na repormista sa panahon ng propaganda. Pinamatnugutan niya ang pahayagang La Solidaridad at aktibong kasapi ng Asosacion Hispano-Filipino.

Noong panahon ng Propaganda, gumamit siya ng sagisag na Tikbalang, Nanding at Kalipulako sa kanyang pagsusulat. Kilala siya bilang aktibong \ mananaliksik ng mga propagandista.

Naglakbay siya sa iba’t ibang Lugar tulad ng CantonHong Kong at Handow. Sa Hong Kong niya nakilala si Heneral Emilio Aguinaldo at saIndo-China at Shanghai naman niya nakilala ang nagtatag at ang unang Pangulo ng Republika ng China na si Dr. Sun Yat Sen. Noong 1898nang ipadala siya sa bansang Hapon upang makipag-ugnayan sa mga opisyales ng pamahalaan doon. Doon niya napangasawa si Akiyo Undangawa. Nagkaroon sila ng apat na anak.

Naglingkod siya bilang isang mambabatas sa Pambansang Asemblea, at kinatawan ng ikalawang distrito ng Bulacan.

Bilang manunulat, siya ay nakasulat ng mga akdang pampanitikan sa wikang KastilaTagalog at Ingles. Bilang tagapag-ambag sa Panitikang Pilipino, mula sa kanyang panulat ang Ang Alamat ng Bulacan, isang katipunan ng mga alamat; Mga Kuwentong Bayan sa Lalawigan ng BulacanAng Pagpugot kay Longhinos, isang dulang itinanghal sa Liwasang Bayan ng MalolosAng Panitikan ng Kilusang PropagandaAng Makasaysayang Pag-aaral Tungkol sa Pilipinas, at marami pang iba.

Namatay siya sa sakit na tuberculosis sa Hong Kong noong Mayo 231918.

Gregoria De Jesus

Gregoria de Jesús (9 May 1875 – 15 March 1943), also known as Aling Oriang,[1] was the founder and vice-president of the women‘s chapter of the Katipunan of the Philippines.[2] She was also the custodian of the documents and seal of the Katipunan.[1] She married Andrés Bonifacio, the supremo of the Katipunan, and played a major role in the Philippine Revolution.[1]She has one son from Andrés Bonifacio and five children from Julio Nak Gregoria de Jesús was born in the city of Caloocan to a Catholic middle-class family.[3] Her father, Nicolás de Jesús, was a carpenter who later served as a gobernadorcillo.[1] As a young girl, she was an exceptional student and a silver medal recipient in an examination organized by the governor general and parish priest. When she became a secondary school student, she was induced by her parents to stay home and look after her younger sister and the family’s farm, since both of her older brothers moved to Manila to continue their edu When Gregoria de Jesús was only 18 years old, Andrés Bonifacio fell in love with her and wanted to marry her.[4] He revealed his intentions to her parents, but her father refused and was against their marriage because Andrés was a Freemason. After almost six months, she had fallen in love with him. She revealed that to her father and asked for his approval on their marriage and the father agreed.[3]

before they got married on March 1893 she joined the katipuneros they got married at Binondo Church. A week later, they were married again in the presence of the Katipuneros, who did not approve of their marriage in a Catholic church.[3] On the evening of the same day, the women’s chapter of the Katipunan was formed, and she was appointed its vice-president and the custodian of the Katipunan documents. She was designated the code name “Lakambini” (Tagalog for goddess or Muse) and swore to remain loyal to the Katipunan’s holy purposes.[3][4]The Spanish police usually came unannounced, and Gregoria used to gather all the documents and drive her car all night and return only when it is safe.

A year later, she returned to her family’s house, because she was pregnant. She gave birth to their only son, who she christened Andrés, after her husband.[3] Two months later, during the Holy Week of 1896, Gregoria and her husband returned to Manila to find their house destroyed by a fire. The couple were forced to live in friends’ and family houses, but had to move quickly from house to house. A few months later, their child, Andrés, died of smallpox.[4]

On 19 August 1896, the Katipunan was exposed and its secrets were revealed by Teodoro Patino, a disgruntled member.[4] The Spanish forces reacted quickly to halt the revolution. Many Filipinos were arrested, jailed, and shot, but Andrés and Gregoria were hiding. The Spanish government was able to tighten its surveillance over the Katipunan. The remaining Katipuneros gathered and planned an attack on a Spanish

Fernando Ma. Guerrero

Guerrero was born to a highly educated family. His father was Lorenzo Guerrero, a painter and art teacher and his mother was Clemencia Ramirez. He began writing literature at a young age. He excelled in the facility of language and obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree from the Ateneo Municipal and the Bachelor of Laws degree at the University of Santo Tomas and wrote journals during the years 1898 to 1900. He became a lawyer and he taught criminology and forensic oratory. He served as chairman of the board of study at the law school La Jurisprudencia (The Jurisprudence). He also became a councilor, secretary of the senate and secretary of the Philippine Independence commission. He was also a director of the Academia de Leyes (Academy of Regulation). Apart from Spanish, Guerrero spoke Latin and Greek and he was an editor ofEl Renacimiento (The Renaissance)La Vanguardia (The Outer works) and La Opinion (The Opinion). He was a member of the First Philippine Assembly, the Academia Filipina (Philippine Academy) and also became a leader of the Municipal Board of Manila. He was also a correspondent to the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language in Madrid. His poetry book Crisálidas was published in 1914. Subsequently he published another verse compilation called Aves y Flores. Guerrero died on June 12, 1929, coinciding with that year’s anniversary of theRepública Filipina (Philippine Republic). A school in PacoManila was named after him in his honor.[1]

He was writer of the lyrics of songs such as “Flor filipina”.

Felipe Agoncillo

Si Felipe Agoncillo ay isang hukom at bayaning Pilipino, asawa ni Gng. Marcela Marino y Agoncillo isinilang sa TaalBatangas noong Mayo 261859 nina Don Ramon Agoncillo at Donya Gregoria Encarnacion. Sinasabing bata pa lamang ito ay may kakaiba ng talinong angkin. Nakapagtapos sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas at natamo nito ang matataas na parangal ng Unibersidad at kanyang lisensya sa larangan ng batasang panghurado. Inakusahang Filibusterong mga kapwa mamayan ng Taal, lumisan si Don Felipe Agoncillo, patungong Bansang Haponat kung saan lumisan muli ito pantungong Hong-Kong, upang sumanib sa iba pang mga Pilipinong myembro ng kilusan. Lumiban pantungong Amerika si Don Felipe Agoncillo kasama si Don Sixto Lopez upang ipaglaban ang karapatan ng mamayang Pilipino, ngunit ang pangulong Amerikanong si William Mckinley ay hindi sila hinarap. Hindi pa rin doon natapos ang kanyang pagiging makabayan at hindi iyon ang humadlang sa kanya patungong Paris sa Pransya, kung saan may ipinagdidiwang na komperensya sa pagitan ng Espanya at Amerika tungkol sa kapayapaan ng dalawang bansa. Sawing bumalik ito sa Hong Kong upang makasamang muli ang junta noong Hulyo 151901.

Namatay si Don Felipe Agoncillo noong Setyembre 291941, sa kalagitnaan ng Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig.

 Rafael Palma

Si Rafael V. Palma ay ipinanganak sa Tundo, Maynila noong Oktubre 241874. Ang kanyang mga magulang ay sina Hermogenes Palma at Hilaria Velasquez.

Siya ay nag-aral sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas sa kursong abogasya. Siya ay naging bahagi ng La Independencia o Ang Kalayaan, isang malaganap na pahayagan noong panahon ng Kastila.

Noong 1907, si Rafael ay nahalal sa Cavite para sa kauna-unahang Asemblea ng Pilipinas. Siya rin ay naging senador noong 1916 at pagkalipas ng may 6 na taon, siya ay nagretiro sa pulitika.

Ang tinaguriang Tagabunsod ng Pilipinismo ay mapayapang yumao sa gulang na 65 noongMayo 241939.

  Juan Luna

Si Juan Luna y Novicio ang nagpinta ng pamosong larawan “Spolarium”. Siya ay nakilala sa buong mundo sa pamamagitan ng kanyang pinsel gaya ng pagkakilala sa kanyang mga kaibigan sa pamamagitan ng pluma at espada.

Siya ay ipinanganak noong Oktubre 231857 sa BadocIlocos Norte kina Joaquin Luna at Laureena Novicio sa Badoc, Ilocos Norte.

Nag-aaral siya sa Ateneo de Manila. Ang pangarap niyang maging isang mandaragat ay natupad matapos siyang mag-aral at magtrabaho sa brako sa murang gulang na 16. Marami siyang napuntahang magandang lugar at iba’t ibang tao ang kanyang nakasama. Bagamat napagtala siya bilang mandaragat huminto para lamang maipagpatuloy niya ang pag-aaral sa pagpinta.

Pumasok siya Academio de Dibujo y Pintura sa Maynila noong 1876 sa kursong Bellas Artes. Ipinagpatuloy niya ang kursong ito sa MadridEspanya. Personal din siyang nagpaturo sa pagpinta kay Alejo Vera na siyang nagdala sa kanya sa bansang RomaItalya upang magmasid. Pumunta siya sa BarcelonaEspanya noong 1877, doon siya naging propesyonal na pintor noong 1880 noong nipanalo niya ang ginuhit niyang The Death of Cleopatra. Nagwagi ito ng pangalawang karangalan sa Eksposisyon sa Madrid. Ito ay binili ng Gobyernong Kastila at ginawang permanenteng exhibit sa Museo Nacional de Pinturas, Salon de Pintures Modernas.

Tumanyag ang pangalan ni Luna nang ginawaran ng gintong medalya ang kanyang Spolarium sa Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes sa Madrid noong 1884. Ito binili rin ng Diputación Provincial de Barcelona sa halagang 20,000 pesetas noong 1886.

Ang iba pa niyang nilikha ay ang Pacto de SangreIdilioEspaña y FilipinasLavanderaEscena MariquinaBatalla de Lepanto, at iba pa.

Noong Oktubre1884, lumipat siya sa Paris kung saan niya ipinagpatulong ang pagpinta.

Si Juan Luna ay nagpakasal kay Paz Pardo de Tavera noong 1886 at noong 1894 pagkalipas ng 17 taon napagkawalay sa Pilipinas ay siya ay bumalik. Siya ay napagsuspetsahan na isa sa mga kasangkot sa pagpapasimula ng rebolusyon kaya’t siya ay hinuli at ikinulong. Pinatawad siya ng Espanya noong Mayo 271897.

 Marcelo H. Del Pilar

Si Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitan (Agosto 301850 - Hulyo 41896), kilala rin bilang ang “Dakilang Propagandista”, ay isang ilustrado noong panahon ng Espanyol. Ang kanyang pangalan sa dyaryo ay Plaridel. Binili niya kay Graciano Lopez Jaena ang La Solidaridad at naging patnugot nito mula noong 1889 hanggang 1895. Dito niya isinulat ang kanyang pinakadakilang likha ang La Soberania Monacal en Filipinas at La Frailocracia Filipina. Isinulat rin niya ang “Dasalan at Tuksuhan” na tumitira sa mga mapang-abusong prayle.

sinilang si del Pilar sa isang nayon sa Cupang, San Nicolas, Bulacan noong Agosto 30, 1850. Siya ang bunso sa sampung magkakapatid ng mayamang pamilya nina Don Julian del Pilar, isang gobernadorcillo at Doña Blasa Gatmaitan. Hilario ang dating apelyido ng pamilya niya. Ang apelyido ng pamilya nila’y isina-Kastila bilang pagsunod sa kautusan ng Gobernador-heneral Narciso Claveria noong 1849. Ang kanyang kapatid na si Padre Toribio H. del Pilar ay isang pari na ipinatapon ng mga Kastila sa Guam noong 1872.

Si del Pilar ay nagsimulang mag-aral sa kolehiyong paaralan ni Ginoong Jose A. Flores at lumipat sa Colegio de San Juan de Letran at muling lumipat sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomaskung saan huminto siya ng walong taon sa pag-aaral pero natapos din sa kursong abogasya noong 1880. Noong Hulyo 1, 1882, itinatag niya ang Diariong Tagalog (ayon kay Wenceslao Retana, isang Kastilang manunulat, ang unang labas ay inilathala noong Hunyo 1, 1882) kung saan binatikos niya ang pang-aabuso ng mga prayle at kalupitan ng pamahalaan. Humingi siya ng mga kaukulang pagbabago. Ilan pa sa kanyang mga isinulat ay ang mga sumusunod: Dudas,Caiingat Cayo, Kadakilaan ng Diyos, Dasalan at Tuksuhan, Sagot ng Espanya sa Hibik ng Pilipinas, Pasyong Dapat Ipag-alab nang Puso ng Taong Babasa, La Soberania Monacal en Filipinas, at La Frailocracia Filipina. Nakipag tulungan si Marcelo sa kaniyang mga kakampi upang mapatalsik nila ang mga kalaban.

Noong 1888, sumulat siya ng manipesto na naglalayong patalsikin ang mga prayle sa Pilipinas, na nilagdaan ng 810 katao sa isang pambayang demonstrasyon at iniharap sa Gobernador ng Maynila. Ipinagtanggol din niya ang mga sinulat ni José Rizal kagaya ng Noli Me Tangere laban sa mga prayleng sumasalakay rito. Nang pinag-uusig siya ng mga Kastila at noong 1888, tumakas siya patungo ng Espanyasanhi ng kanyang panawagang pagpapatapon sa Dominikanong Arsobispo Pedro P. Payo.

Pagdating sa Espanya, pinanguluhan niya ang pangkat pampulitika ng La Asociacion Hispano-Filipino (Ang Sam sinilang si del Pilar sa isang nayon sa Cupang, San Nicolas, Bulacan noong Agosto 30, 1850. Siya ang

.Leona Florentino

Si Leona Florentino ang unang makatang babae ng Ilocos Sur. Isinilang siya sa ViganIlocos Sur (noon ay Villa Fernandina), noong Abril 191849. Ang kanyang ama ay si Don Marcelino Florentino na kinilalang isa sa mayayaman sa Ilocos noon at ang kanyang ina ay si Donya Isabel Florentino.

Si Leona Florentino raw ang katapat nina Elizabeth Barret Browning ng Inglatera at Sappho ng Grecia.

Ang maririkit niyang mga tula sa Kastila at wikang Ilokano ay nakasama sa eksibit sa Exposicion General de Filipinas sa Madrid noong 1887at sa International Exposition sa Paris noong 1889. Ito ang nagbigay sa kanya at sa Pilipinas ng karangalan at dahil sa kinilala ang kanyang kakayahan sa literatura, nakasama siya sa International Encyclopedia of Women’s Works, noong 1889.

Sa gulang na 10 taon pa lamang ay nakasusulat na si Leona ng mga tula sa wikang Iloko at nakapagsasalita na rin siya ng Kastila. Siya ang pinakamatalino sa pamilya subalit hindi siya nakapag aral sa Unibersidad sapagkat noong panahong iyon (panahon ng Kastila) ang mga paaralan ng mataas na pagaaral ay sarado para sa mga kababaihan -may paniniwala na ang mga babae ay para lamang sa tahanan o kaya ay pagiging madre.

Pinaunlad ni Leona ang kaniyang sarili sa pamamagitan ng pagbabasa ng iba’t ibang aklat hanggang sa makilala niya si Padre Evaristo Abaya na nagturo sa kanya ng higit pang Kastila at humikayat sa kanya na siya ay magsulat ng mga tula.

Nakasal si Leona kay Elias delos Reyes na minsan ay nanungkulan bilang Alkalde Mayor ng Vigan. Nagkaroon silang limang anak. Ang pinakamatanda ay kinilala rin sa ating kasaysayan at maging sa larangan ng panitikan. Siya ay si Isabelo delos Reyes, naging senador at sibik lider noong kanyang kapanahunan.

Ang mga nakilalang tula ni Leona Florentino ay Rucrunoy, (Dedication), Naangaway a Cablaw (Good Greetings), Nalpay a Namnama(Vanishing Hope), BenignaPara ken CarmenPanay Pacada (Farewell), at iba pa.

Nakapanghihinayang na ang iba pa niyang nasulat ay nawala. Ang iba ay nasa pambansang aklatan sa MadridLondres at Paris.

Maagang binawian ng buhay si Leona sa gulang na 35. Namatay siya sa Vigan noong Oktubre 41884.

Bagamat namatay nang maaga ay nakilala naman ang kanyang kakayahan hindi lamang dito sa Pilipinas kung di hanggang sa Europa. Siya ang unang Pilipina na nakilala sa buong mundo bilang babaing makata.

Pedro Paterno

Si Pedro Alejandro Paterno ay isinilang noong ika-27 ng Pebrero1858. Siya ay isa sa 13 anak ng nakaririwasang mag-asawa na sina Don Maximo Paterno at Donya Carmen de Vera Ignacio.

Siya ay nagtapos ng Bachiller en Artes sa Ateneo de Manila. Siya ay nagkamit ng karangalan sa kanyang pagtatapos. Ipinagpatuloy pa rin niya ang pag-aaral sa Unibersidad de Salamanca. Dito niya kinuha ang mga kursong Pilosopiya at Teolohiya, pagkatapos ay lumipat siya sa Unibersidad Central ng Madrid na kung saan naman ay nagtapos niya ang pagkadalubhasa sa batas noong 1880.

Siya ay tinaguriang tagapamagitan sa mga Kastila at Pilipino upang makamit ang mapayapang pakikitungo sa mga Kastila. Ayon sa kanya, dahil sa Espanyol ay kulang-kulang ng isang daang taong may pagkakaugnayan sa Pilipinas. Subalit ito ay mahigpit na tinutulan ng mga tao sapagkat nais nilang ipaglaban ang tunay na kalayaan ng bansang Pilipinas.

Siya ay isa sa mga Pilipinong propagandista sa Espanya. Noong 1882, napagtagumpayan niyang maalis ang monopolyo sa Tabako sa bansang Pilipinas. Bilang makataa, siya ang kauna-unahang Pilipino na sumulat ng isang opera sa wikang Pilipino, sang Sandugong Panaginip. Nilikha rin niya ang mga aklat na tula na Sampaguitas y Poesias Varias at Poesias Lyricas y Dramaticas.

Noong himagsikan, siya ay sumanib kung kaya’y isa siya sa naging prominenteng tao noong ihayag ang Unang Republika ng Pilipinas. Siya ay hinirang na Pangulo ng Kongreso sa Malolos noong Setyembre 151898. Siya ang namumuno sa tuwing magkakaroon ng pagpupulong at palagi niyang pinaiiral ang mapayapang diplomasya upang magkaroon ng maayos na pag-uusap sa iba’t ibang partido politikal. Nang bumagsak sa kamay ng mga kaaway ang Malolos, iminungkahi ni Paterno ang pakikipagsundo ng mga Pilipino at Amerikano. Nagsagawa siya ng dalawang araw na kapistahan (Hulyo 28 at Hulyo 29) na kung saan ay isa sa mga pangunahing pandangal ay si Heneral Arthur MacArthur at ilang opisyal ng Taft Commission. Subalit ikinagalit ng mga Amerikano ang pagbabandera sa larawan ni Presidente Aguinaldo at ipinakumpiska ang mga ito.

Si Pedro Paterno ay nahalal na kinatawan ng Unand Distrito ng Laguna para sa Unang Asemblea ng Pilipinas noong Oktubre 161907. Siya ay namatay sa edad na 53 noong Marso 111911 sa sakit na kolera.

Marcela Agoncillo

Si Marcela Mariño de Agoncillo ipinanganak sa TaalBatangas noong Hunyo 241860 kina Franciso Marino at Eugenia Coronel. Siya ang tinaguriang ina ng watawat ng Pilipinas. Sinasabing kung ano raw ang ganda nang watawat ng Pilipinas, iyon din ang gandang bibighani sa iyo kapag masilayan mo ang may katha. Tapat na may bahay ni Don Felipe Agoncillo. Sa Araw ng Asunción, Mayo 301946; pinanawan ng buhay si Marcela Agoncillo, sa gulang na 86

  Lapu Lapu

Si Lapu-Lapu ay isang datu sa isla ng Maktan. Nang dumating si Fernando de Magallanes para basbasan ang mga tribu ng Kristiyanismo, tumutol si Lapu- lapu at nakipaglaban sa kanila.

Walang naitala tungkol sa kapanakan ni Lapu-lapu maliban sa kanyang mga magulang na sina Kusgano at Reyna Bauga. Ang magkapatid na Abnaw at Mausug ang kanyang kanang-kamay at pinakamatatalik na kaibigan. Siya ay nagpakasal kay Prinsesa Bulakna, ang magandang anak ni Datu Sabtano. Sila ay biniyayaan ng isang anak na lalaki, si Sawili.

Bilang isang pinuno ng Maktan, si Lapu-lapu ay sadyang may matibay na paninindigan. Bilang patunay dito, ay mariin niyang pagtanggi sa mga mapanlinlang mga alok ni Magellan. Ayon kay Magellan, bibigyan niya ng magandang posisyon at natatanging pagkilala si Lapu-lapu, subalit kapalit nito ang pagkilala at pagtatag ng pamahalaang Kastila sa kanyang nasasakupan at sa ilalim pa nito, ay ang sakupin ang buong Pilipinas at angkinin ang mga lupang tunay na pag-aari ng mga nitibo at partikular na ang kamag-anak at pamilya Lapu-Lapu (Lapulapu). Labis na ikinagalit ni Magellan ang pagtanggi ni Lapu-lapu sa kanyang alok.

Samantala, isang anak na lalaki ni Datu Zulla, kaaway ni Lapu-lapu, ang pumanig kay Magellan at kanilang binuo ang paglusob sa lokal ng Maktan. Hatinggabi ng Abril 261521 nang si Magellan, kasama ng kanyang mga kapanalig na mahigit na isang libo ay naglayag upang sakupin ang lokal ng maktan.Sa Opon kung saan matatagpuan si Lapu-lapu nuon at sampu sa kanyang mga kaanak. Sa kabilang dako ay handa namang salubungin ito ng may 1,500 mandirigma ni Lapu-lapu. Sila ay nakapuwesto sa may baybaying-dagat. Nang magsalubong ang dalawang puwersa ay nagsimula ang isang umaatikabong labanan sa Maktan. Sa bandang huli ay nagapi ni Lapu-lapu si Magellan nang tamaan niya ito sa kaliwang binti. Si Magellan ay bumagsak sa lupa at dito siya tuluyang pinatay ng mga sakop ni Lapu-lapu. Siya ay namatay dahil sa dalawang Kalabaw sa Batanggas, nang siya’y inimbita ng hari ng Estanza. Nang siya ay naghihintay sa kaibigan nyang nagsasaka, bigla siyang sinugod ng dalawang kalabaw at nawalan ng malay pagkatapos.

Walang nakatiyak ng kamatayan ni Lapu-lapu subalit ang kanyang tagumpay sa paglaban sa dayuhan ay isang kabayanihang naitala sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas at sirkunabigayson ng daigdig.Ang kanyang mga kaanak ay matinding tinakot ng mga sumunod na mananakop dito sa Pilipinas.Isang napakalungkot na kasaysayan dahil kung tutuusin sila ang mga tunay na nagmamay-ari ng halos lahat ng lupain sa Mactan, Cebu at karatig isla nito.

Francisco Baltazar

Si Francisco Baltazar ay ipinanganak noong Abril 2, 1788 sa Panginay, Bigaa, Bulacan. Tinatawag rin siyang Kiko at Balagtas. Ang mga magulang niya ay sina Juana dela Cruz at Juan Baltazar at ang mga kapatid rin niya ay sina Felipe, Concha at Nicolasa. Pumasok siya una sa paaralang parokyal sa Bigaa, kung saan siya’y tinuruan tungkol sa relihiyon. Sunod, naging katulong siya ni Donya Trinidad upang makapagpatuloy siya ng kolehiyo sa Colegio de San Jose sa Maynila. Pagkatapos, nag-aral naman siya sa Colegio de San Juan de Letran at naging guro niya si Padre Mariano Pilapil.





 Julian Banzon

researchedmethods of producing alternativefuels.

Alcaraz, Arturo:

was a leadingmember of a team that used steamproduced from the heat of avolcano to produce electric powerin 1967.

Banatao, Diosdado:

introducedor developed accelerator chips thatimproved computer performance.He also helped make the internetpossible by contributing to thedevelopment of the Ethernetcontroller chip, created the localbus concept for personalcomputers.

Campos, Paulo:

wrote manypapers in the field of nuclearmedicine and was instrumental inbuilding the first radioisotope lab inthe Philippines.

Comiso, Josefino:

the firstperson to discover a recurring areaof open water in sea ice in the


Foreign Physicists: Alexander Graham Bell

-Contributing to the invention andspread of the telephone-Founding the Bell Telephone Company

Robert Boyle

- Formulating Boyle’slaw, which states that the volume of agas is directly related to the pressureto which it is subjected-Helping to found modern chemistryby introducing experimental methodsand the idea that elements are thebasic building blocks of matter

Isaac Newton

-Inventing, in part, thebranch of mathematics now known ascalculus-Formulating the three laws of motionwhich describe classical mechanics-Proposing the theory of universalgravitation, which explains that allbodies are affected by the force calledgravity


Benjamin Franklin

-Experimentingwith electricity and developinginventions-Franklin invented bifocals and thelightning rod, and charted the courseof the Gulf Stream.


-Proposing that falling bodieswould all fall at the same rate,regardless of mass, if there were no airresistance-Galileo helped develop the scientificmethod by using experimentation totest physical theories. Galileoconstructed the first thermometer




Brian’s story:

It all started back in the spring of 1998. I was eleven years old, and my family had just gotten on the Internet. I thought it was wonderful. Soon I got into role-playing online, and it was SO addictive. Those who say that RPGs are harmless and helpful have NO idea what they are talking about. My “character” got “killed” and I was very upset. It was as if a part of me had died. Soon I had a new character, and I was hooked on it more so than ever.

In the fall of ’98 though, I got tossed by AOL for bad language in a RP [role-playing] chat, and I lost ALL of my privileges except for website visiting and e-mail. At first I thought it was terrible, but I gradually adjusted, and used the Internet for reference. Then, after three months, my mother gave my chat privileges back. I was fine for a little while until I got re-ensnared in RPGs .

By early spring of 1999 it was terrible. I had become more obsessed than ever and spent almost all of my free time online role-playing. I soon began to spiral downward.

When summer rolled around, I had more free time. In the real world, I had made some new friends. Now I spent most of my day role-playing and my nights talking to my “friends”. When they offered me marijuana, I willingly accepted. (The RPGs had lowered my resistance to bad ideas, etc.) I smoked it and got a buzz off of it. That felt good. A few days later, one of my friends took me to a nearby lake, and offered me a pipe full of smoking marijuana. I took it, and smoked it, I got VERY high, he walked me home, and we sat outside talking for hours. Soon, I was smoking it regularly (By the way, I am an asthmatic). Soon I was immersed in drugs and in total rebellion toward my mom.

By this time, school had started back up, and I was discussing drug use, etc. with the burnouts at my school. It didn’t work too well though. I also went to church, so I had to keep a double life going.

One weekend I went with the youth group on a trip. It was wonderful! When we got back, I repented and gave my life to Jesus. Then I tore up my $50 deck of pokemon cards. I know that He has forgiven all my sins, and now I try to save others. 

It was hard to explain my faith to my non-Christian friends. They thought I had become kind of weird. The Game-Playing friends acted like I didn’t exist, especially when I tried to share the Gospel with them. It was hard, but it was worth it. I read in the Bible that no matter what happens on earth, it’s only temporary.

I now spend a lot of my time trying to witness to people. Some make fun of me and others ignore me, and sometimes it really hurts. But some respect me even if they don’t want to believe or listen. In any case, I want to follow Jesus. He freed me from the role-playing obsession through the cross. He has pardoned me by his blood, and I am on my way to heaven. That’s what really counts.

God’s Word

Remember, people who reject God also reject God’s people. So when Brian began to follow Jesus, his old friends didn’t want to be with him anymore. They sensed the life of Jesus inside Brian, and they felt uncomfortable when they did bad things.

But Bryan knew something they didn’t know. He knew that Jesus had forgiven him and would be his friend forever. If he would choose to trust his wonderful Shepherd, then God would lead him and enable him to follow. By himself he would have been afraid to upset his friends and talk about God. Every good thing he did would be by God’s grace — a gift that he didn’t deserve. That’s why this verse became one of Bryan’s favorite:

“For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works, lest anyone should boast.” Ephesians 2:8-9



Linh Dao was only ten years old, but she already knew that following Jesus could be dangerous. That’s because she lived in Vietnam, where the Communist leaders didn’t allow Christians to share their faith with others. Nor did they allow people to read the Bible together.

But Linh’s family had a lot of Bibles hidden in their home. Her father was the pastor of an “underground church” that had to meet in secret. He knew that they might all be caught and killed whenever they met together. But that didn’t stop these brave Christians, for they loved God even more than their own lives. So they continued to read their Bibles and worship God together.

But the police found out about the Bibles. One scary day, four officers burst into Linh’s home. They forced her father to sit and watch while they searched everywhere for Bibles.

Linh loved God’s Word. She just couldn’t let the officers take all the Bibles away. So, while the police searched her home and questioned her parents, the brave girl hid Bibles in her school backpack.

One of the officers noticed the little girl. “What’s in there,” he asked, looking at her backpack.

She hesitated for a moment. She didn’t want to lie, but if she told him about the Bibles, he would take them all. What should she do? God gave her an answer. “It is books for children,” she said.

The policeman turned away. But the four officers had found the rest of the Bibles, and they arrested her father. He was sentenced to hard labor and “re-education.” The Communist didn’t want him to think like a Christian or to share his faith with others. They wanted him to be just like them ­ a loyal Communist. He had to be “brainwashed.” They would try all kinds of cruel tricks to force him to turn from God and trust the government instead.

When Linh’s neighbors heard about her father’s arrest, they believed he was a criminal. But Linh was proud of her dad. “He is a Christian,” she told everyone. She explained that as a follower of Jesus, he had to keep telling others about God’s love ­ even when it meant persecution.

Each day, Linh prayed for her father. Finally, she and her mother and sister were allowed to visit him in the prison. But they could only see him through a chain-link fence. Linh looked for a way to get closer to her dad, and found a spot where she could squeeze her little body through a chained gate. Once inside the prison yard, she ran up to her father and hugged him. The guards watched, but they didn’t stop or hurt her. God kept her safe.

Afterwards, Linh kept praying that God would use her father to show His love in the prison. He answered her prayer in wonderful ways. Since Linh’s family had smuggled him a pen during their visit, her father could write Bible verses on cigarette paper. Soon, the prisoners were passing his “cigarette sermons” from cell to cell.

Many of the lonely men, who had been beaten and tortured, learned to know God and His wonderful love in the midst of their suffering. Instead of “re-education” to be obedient Communists, they learned to love Jesus as their Shepherd and Friend. Satan wanted to destroy them, but God brought a great victory!

God’s Word

The Bible tells us that people who reject God also reject God’s people. They don’t want us to be different from them. They want to do what they feel like doing, and they want others to agree with them. Therefore, people who love the Bible make them angry:

“I have given them Your word; and the world has hated them because they are not of the world, just as I am not of the world.” (John 17:14)

“Blessed are you when they revile and persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely for My sake. Rejoice and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you.” (Matthew 5:10-12)


Never Alone

I am 11 years old, and I have learned an important lesson this year: it’s not easy to be a Christian sixth grader at a public school. One hard test came when my reading teacher told the class that she would be teaching out of the Harry Potter books. I was sure God didn’t want me to read about witchcraft and spells, but I didn’t want to object either. I don’t like to be different and upset my friends. So I prayed. Then God gave me confidence to stand up for my religion and trust Him to help me through it.

I asked the teacher to let me read something else and she found me another book: A Wrinkle in Time. I had never heard of it, so I searched for it on the Internet. I found the website and read some information on it. It seemed just as bad as Harry Potter.

The teacher told me to choose a book from her bookshelf. But it was full of witchcraft books!  When I was almost ready to give up, I saw Charlotte’s Web. That was the best I could find.

One day she played wiccan music in class using the computer. When it started playing, all of a sudden I could feel like a force coming in to me. Then I noticed it was not a good one. It felt like I was being taken over by something. We were supposed to be taking a test, but I felt myself  getting too relaxed to even think. It felt like I was in another world and could not get out of it.

So I started to pray. As soon as I did, the force left me and I continued to take my test. Then it came back over me again. This time it was worse and more scary. I prayed again saying “God please make it go away.” Just then the bell rang. I have never been so glad to get out of class as I was that day.

My teacher loves Harry Potter and all kinds of witchcraft and wizardry. She just ordered new books for the bookshelf. One of them is Lord of the Rings. All involve witchcraft.

She was reading a new book the other day and told us the title. The words sounded occult, so I checked it on the Internet. The search brought up about six witchcraft sites. I quickly closed them again.  I was glad she didn’t read the book out loud to the class.

The worse part is that she tell us that witchcraft is not real. The class seems to believe her. They think witchcraft is fun and games. One person ordered a Harry Potter kit which teaches you how to do spells. The teacher used it during class one day. Everyone seemed to love the magic and the special power! They saw nothing wrong with it since they believe it’s all just fantasy. I know that’s not true, but the class would rather listen to her than to me.

At first, I was not that worried about all the lessons on witchcraft, because my principal is a faithful Christian. I thought he would understand how bad this is. But he saw nothing wrong with it. When I realized that he approved of it, then I got more concerned. Later, the school board told my parents that our teacher can make us read anything she wants since it’s a reading class. Parents can’t do anything about it.

It is very hard. Today, when I got to the class that uses the Harry Potter books, there was a satanic star drawn in the top left corner of my desk. I felt sad, because I know that my values offend many of my classmate. They want me to go along with everything.

But I know it’s much better to follow God than my peers. Everything is in His hands, and He will always be there for me. When my peers want me to love things that are wrong, He is always ready to help me fight for what is right. He even helps me through a teacher in our school. She is on my side, and every day she tells me not to give up.

Even my two friends that are against Harry Potter are trying to please their peers. So after seeing how they act, I know I need to stand up for God. I think the hardest part is when I pass by my teacher and hear her talking about me. Some of the things she says are not true. Then I try to remember how Jesus was hated and mocked. He stood alone and died a painful death for us. Now I can give something back to Him.

A scripture that encourages me is 1 Peter 5:8-9. It reminds me that I am not the only one going through this.

God’s Word:

“Be self-controlled  and alert. Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour. Resist him standing firm in the faith, because you know that your brothers throughout the world are under going the same kind of suffering. “  1 Peter  5:8-9



Refusing to Compromise 

All the students at River Junior High School had to take a class called “Life Mastery Skills.” We called it LMS. Even though I wanted to like it, I knew from the beginning that something was wrong. Very wrong!

We hardly ever worked or studied alone. Instead we did group work every day. We had group assignments, group answers, and group grades. When some kids didn’t want to work, I had to do it for them so that I wouldn’t get a bad grade.

It was especially hard when we had to compare different religions. Some religions are similar. Witches, New Agers, and Native Americans all believe in a spirit that is in everything. It was easy for the kids who really like those religions. They could all agree. I couldn’t, because I am a Christian.

“All religions are right,” said the teacher, “It’s up to you to decide which is right for you.”

One day I stood up and said that wasn’t true. ‘There is only one good religion.’ Then everybody got upset and mimicked me. But I didn’t care.”

My teacher taught us that Muslims think Jesus is just one of the gods. He said that Christianity came from Islam.

One weird thing was that we had to vote on whether or not we wanted to do the Pledge of Allegiance. I was the only one in the entire school who voted for doing the Pledge of Allegiance.

We were told that if everybody signed a petition, the school would have to do what we asked. So one day we made a petition to stop Life Mastery Skills class. This time all the kids signed it. One of the teachers even did. But my teacher said, “No. This is a very important class.”

It’s really a sad and depressing school. The kids never smile. Their faces look like robots. It’s strange. At home I would cry because I had to go back the next day.

I got a lot stronger in the Lord going to that school. Every night I would ask God, “Please help me get out of that school Please help me and give me faith and wisdom to know what to do. It made me much stronger, because I wanted God so badly.”

Jillian, a twelve-year old girl in Northern California

God’s Word

“For God has not given us a spirit of fear, but of power and of love and of a sound mind. Therefore do not be ashamed… but share with me in the sufferings for the gospel according to the power of God….” 2 Timothy 1:7-8



Her All for Him

Home | What the Bible Tells Us About Persecution | Preparing for Victory

Anila lived in Pakistan, a nation where most people were Muslims. She knew that it could be dangerous to talk about Jesus. But she also knew that her wonderful Lord had asked her to share His love with the lost and lonely. She, like His disciples, wanted to follow Him. She couldn’t turn back, even if it would cost her life.

So she told her friend, Perveen, about Jesus and His death on the cross.  Perveen dared to believe and she gave her life to God. The two teenagers became sisters in Christ, and they loved to read the Bible and sing Christian songs together. Perveen even taught some of the songs to her little sister.

When Perveen’s parents found out that their daughter had given her life to God, they became furious.  They believed that conversion to Christianity brought shame to the family. When she refused to conform to the Muslim ways, her angry brother stabbed her to death,

You might think that such a horrible murder would be punished by the police, but that didn’t happen. In Pakistan and other Muslim cultures, the police often allow family members to kill their child, brother or sister who has embarrassed them by becoming Christian.

But the police had already arrested Anila.  She was imprisoned, beaten and tortured for sharing her faith. But God didn’t forsake her. While thousands of Christians in America and around the world prayed for her, God caused the officials in her city to set her free. But her hometown was no longer a safe place for her Christian family. Since many angry Muslims still wanted to kill the brave girl and her family, they have had to hide.

Anila is glad she could serve God and share His love. She misses Perveen but knows that her friend is happy in heaven with Jesus. The world may continue to persecute her, but she knows that Jesus will comfort and care for her as long as she lives here on earth. And when she has finished everything He has planned for her, she will be forever in heaven with Him — and with Perveen and all the other saints who have given their lives to Him. What could be better?

“I have seen the world,” she says, “and it has nothing good. Jesus is my only peace.”

God’s Word:

“For our citizenship is in heaven, from which we also eagerly wait for the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body….”  Philippians 3:20-21

“These things have I spoken to you, that in Me you may have peace. In the world you will have tribulation; but be of good cheer. I have overcome the world.”  John 16:33

SOLAR ENERGY :San Marcos H/s



Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization. They can be grouped into three broad categories: box cookers, panel cookers and reflector cookers. The simplest solar cooker is the box cooker first built by Horace de Saussure in 1767.A basic box cooker consists of an insulated container with a transparent lid. It can be used effectively with partially overcast skies and will typically reach temperatures of 90–150 °C.Panel cookers use a reflective panel to direct sunlight onto an insulated container and reach temperatures comparable to box cookers. Reflector cookers use various concentrating geometries (dish, trough, Fresnel mirrors) to focus light on a cooking container. These cookers reach temperatures of 315 °C and above but require direct light to function properly and must be repositioned to track the Sun.

The solar bowl is a concentrating technology employed by the Solar Kitchen in Auroville, Pondicherry, India, where a stationary spherical reflector focuses light along a line perpendicular to the sphere’s interior surface, and a computer control system moves the receiver to intersect this line. Steam is produced in the receiver at temperatures reaching 150 °C and then used for process heat in the kitchen.


sun makes bacteria grow,

bacteria and sun is needed to grow plants

plants are needed to feed plant eating animals

carnivors eats the plant eating animals.

then scaventures eats the carnivors.

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